By L. Lee Grismer
The Baja California peninsula is domestic to many different types of existence discovered nowhere else in the world. This, mixed with the peninsula's rugged and inaccessible terrain, has made the realm one of many final precise organic frontiers of North the United States. L. Lee Grismer isn't just the most important authority at the amphibians and reptiles of Baja California, but additionally an exceptional photographer. He has produced the main finished paintings at the herpetofauna of the peninsula and its islands ever released. With its attractive colour photographs, special bills of many little-known species, and outlines of the region's varied setting, this is often the definitive consultant to the amphibians and reptiles of a desirable and distant region.The end result of Grismer's sector century of fieldwork at the Baja peninsula and his exploration of multiple hundred of its islands within the Pacific Ocean and the ocean of Cort?s, this e-book offers info at the identity, distribution, traditional historical past, and taxonomy of every species of amphibian and reptile came upon there. initial debts of the lifestyles heritage of some of the salamanders, frogs, toads, turtles, lizards, and snakes are said right here for the 1st time, and a number of other species that have been nearly unknown to technological know-how are illustrated in complete colour. The e-book additionally includes new info on species distribution and at the impression of the remoted panorama of the peninsula and its islands at the evolutionary technique. a lot of the data collected this is provided in biogeographical overviews that think about the tremendous different environments of Baja California in either a latest and a old framework. An unique and significant contribution to technology, this ebook will generate extra examine for years yet to come because it turns into a benchmark reference for either execs and amateurs.
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Additional info for Amphibians and Reptiles of Baja California, Including Its Pacific Islands and the Islands in the Sea of Cortes (Organisms and Environments)
A few species with diverse origins outside Baja California are restricted to its northeast portion. These forms probably entered Baja California after the regression of the Gulf. These are strictly associated with the Río Colorado, its drainages, or its ﬂood-plain Table 2 Historical Biogeographical Complexes of the Native Herpetofauna of the Baja California Peninsula Southern Miocene Vicariant Complex Northern Pliocene Vicariant Complex Western Desert Complex Río Colorado Group Northwestern Complex ChapparralMadrean Woodland Complex Ubiquitous Group Placement Uncertain SALAMANDERS PLETHODONTI DAE Aneides lugubris Batrachoseps major Ensatina eschscholtzii klauberi • • • • FROGS AND TOADS BU FON IDAE Bufo alvarius boreas californicus cognatus punctatus woodhousii • • • • • • HYLI DAE Hyla cadaverina regilla • • RAN I DAE Rana aurora boylii yavapaiensis • • • PE LOBATI DAE Scaphiopus couchii Spea hammondii • • TURTLES AND TORTOISES EMYDIDAE Clemmys marmorata Trachemys nebulosa • • TESTU DI N I DAE Gopherus agassizii • LIZARDS CROTAPHYTI DAE Crotaphytus grismeri vestigium Gambelia copeii wislizenii • • • • Southern Miocene Vicariant Complex Northern Pliocene Vicariant Complex Western Desert Complex Rio Colorado Group Northwestern Complex ChapparralMadrean Woodland Complex Ubiquitous Group Placement Uncertain IGUANIDAE Ctenosaura hemilopha Dipsosaurus dorsalis Sauromalus obesus • • • PH RYNOSOMATI DAE Callisaurus draconoides Petrosaurus mearnsi repens thalassinus Phrynosoma coronatum mcallii platyrhinos Sceloporus hunsakeri licki magister occidentalis orcutti vandenburgianus zosteromus Uma notata Urosaurus graciosus lahtelai nigricaudus Uta stansburiana • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • E U B LE PHAR I DAE Coleonyx switaki variegatus • • GEKKONIDAE Phyllodactylus unctus xanti • • TEIIDAE Cnemidophorus hyperythrus labialis tigris • • • XANTUSI I DAE Xantusia henshawi vigilis • • (continued) Table 2, continued Southern Miocene Vicariant Complex Northern Pliocene Vicariant Complex Western Desert Complex Rio Colorado Group Northwestern Complex ChapparralMadrean Woodland Complex Ubiquitous Group Placement Uncertain SCI NCI DAE Eumeces gilberti lagunensis skiltonianus • • • ANG U I DAE Anniella geronimensis pulchra Elgaria multicarinata paucicarinata velazquezi • • • • • WORM LIZARDS BIPEDIDAE Bipes biporus • SNAKES LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE Leptotyphlops humilis • B OI DAE Lichanura trivirgata • COLU B R I DAE Arizona elegans pacata Bogertophis rosaliae Chilomeniscus stramineus Chionactis occipitalis Diadophis punctatus Eridiphas slevini Hypsiglena torquata Lampropeltis getula zonata Masticophis aurigulus ﬂagellum fuliginosus lateralis Phyllorhynchus decurtatus • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Southern Miocene Vicariant Complex Western Desert Complex Rio Colorado Group Northwestern Complex ChapparralMadrean Woodland Complex Ubiquitous Group Placement Uncertain 29 • • • • • • • • • • • VIPERIDAE Crotalus atrox cerastes enyo mitchellii ruber • • • • • Source: Adapted from Grismer 1994a.
Such relationships between populations and their environments are most obvious in areas where geographically proximate environmental extremes result from interactions between major physiographic features and climate. This principle is eloquently demonstrated in the general ecogeography of the herpetofauna of Baja California and even more so in general trends involving dispersal barriers, dispersal corridors, and habitat islands. Dispersal corridors are generally localized regions whose physiography and ecology allow certain groups of species access into regions where they would not occur without such corridors.
Here it continues south to just north of Todos Santos. The eastern border extends south from San Ignacio along the base of the Peninsular Ranges to the Isthmus of La Paz, where it arcs east and contacts the Gulf coast. Its relatively warmer climate is inﬂuenced by the warmer Davidson Current during the fall and the colder California Current at other times of the year. However, morning fogs are common, and annual precipitation is low and unpredictable, owing to the rainshadow eﬀect of the Sierra la Giganta and its southerly location, which keeps it outside most winter storm tracks.