By K. Feste
What coverage is better for the USA to minimize the specter of Islamic extremist terrorism? contemporary American presidents have utilized replacement clash answer ways. Clinton practiced clash avoidance, speaking tricky yet infrequently retaliating opposed to anti-American terrorist assaults. G. W. Bush followed a fighter procedure and the worldwide struggle on Terrorism and armed forces interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq replicate this approach. Obama brought a 3rd substitute: challenge fixing and lengthening peaceable overtures whereas maintaining resistance. Will the tactic be successful? Feste analyzes presidential rhetoric on counterterrorism coverage throughout the lens of factor framing, enemy aggression, self -hardship, and victimization expressed in quite a few speeches brought through those leader executives to focus on and evaluate their clash solution suggestions.
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Extra info for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency)
Frames are often found within a narrative account of an issue or event, and are generally the central organizing idea. Iyengar (1991) proposes two types of policy understanding frames, the “episodic” that tends to focus on individuals (to blame poverty on a lack of motivation or ability on the part of the poor, for example), and “thematic,” which focus on broader social and economic forces (to blame poverty on structural economic problems or a lack of political will, for example). The two types of framing highlight different causal agents, and hence suggest different solutions.
According to Rapoport (2004, p. 47), modern terror began in Russia and within a decade appeared in Western Europe, the Balkans, and Asia, as a wave initiated by anarchists whose primary strategy— assassination campaigns against prominent officials—was adopted by virtually all of the other groups of the time. It came to an end at the close of World War I in 1918 with the advent of reconstructed governments in many of the states formerly affected by the anarchism. The next phase, beginning in the 1920s, consisted of uprisings by local inhabitants of colonial territories in Africa and Asia run by European powers.
Mayer (2000, pp. 132–133) calls it one of the most powerful tools for solving conflict. By implication, framing is the center of conflict analysis. Framing refers to the way a conflict is described; reframing is “the process of changing the way a thought is presented so that it maintains its fundamental meaning but is more likely to support resolution efforts. Successive reframing comes into play because complex conflicts or issues cannot easily be effectively reframed in one clever effort. It is an interactive and iterative communication process.